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Causes of Leukemia: Bibliography of Journal Articles

The following articles are the result of links from listmembers and a search of the NCI PubMed site. Whenever possible, a link to the abstract or to the full text article is given.

UC Berkeley Web Site: Go to the main UC Berkeley web site and Type in the word "leukemia" where it says Search Berkeley web site to pull up many pages of articles. (2003 note.)

2016

Environmental, maternal, and reproductive risk factors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Egypt: A case-control study. Ezzat S, et al., BMC Cancer, 08/23/2016. Abstract. About 300 parents of children with ALL and 300 without. "In Egypt, the risk for childhood ALL appears to be associated with older maternal age, and certain maternal reproductive factors. . . The risk of ALL was increased with the mother's use of medications for ovulation induction . . . Delivering the child by Cesarean section, was also associated with increased risk."

Childhood leukemia incidence in California: High and rising in the Hispanic population. Giddings BM et al., Cancer, epub 2016 Jun 28. Abstract. "Notable differences in the incidence of childhood leukemia were observed among 4 racial/ethnic groups in California. Factors that may contribute to these differences include differential exposure to carcinogens and/or genetic susceptibility."

Maternal prenatal intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients and risk of childhood leukemia. Singer AW, et al., Cancer Causes and Control, epub 06/21/2016. Abstract. "In conclusion, these data suggest that higher maternal intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients may reduce risk of childhood leukemia." One-carbon metabolism nutrients: "Folate, vitamins B12 and B6, riboflavin, and methionine are critical nutrients for the one-carbon metabolism cycle involved in DNA synthesis and epigenetic processes."

Childhood leukaemia and distance from power lines in California: a population-based case-control study. Crespi CM, et al., British Journal of Cancer, epub 06/14/2016. Abstract.

Caesarean delivery and risk of childhood leukaemia: a pooled analysis from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC). Erin L Marcotte et al., The Lancet Haematology, 03/18/2016. Abstract.

2015

Residential mobility and the risk of childhood leukemia. Järvelä L et al., Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Mar;27(3):433-43. Abstract. From Finland: "Our results do not indicate that higher residential mobility or moving to municipalities with more inhabitants is associated with risk of childhood leukemia."

Residential exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and risk of childhood leukaemia, CNS tumour and lymphoma in Denmark. Pedersen C et al., Br J Cancer. 2015 Oct 20. Abstract. "We did not confirm the previous finding of a five- to six-fold higher risk for leukaemia, CNS tumour and malignant lymphoma when including data from the more recent time period."

Germline genetic variation in ETV6 and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a systematic genetic study. Takaya Moriyama et al., The Lancet Oncology, 10/30/2015. Abstract. "Our findings indicated germline ETV6 variations as the basis of a novel genetic syndrome associated with predisposition to childhood ALL. The development of recommendations for clinical interventions and surveillance for individuals harbouring ALL-related ETV6 variants are needed." Lay article.

A case-control study of occupational contact levels in the childhood leukaemia cluster at Seascale, Cumbria, UK. Kinlen LJ, BMJ Open. 2015 Aug 4;5(8). Abstract.

Residential Proximity to Heavy-Traffic Roads, Benzene Exposure, and Childhood Leukemia-The GEOCAP Study, 2002-2007. Houot J et al., Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Sep 15. Abstract. "These results, which were free from any participation bias and based on objectively determined indices of exposure, showed an increased incidence of AML associated with heavy-traffic road density near a child's home."

Risk of leukaemia in children infected with enterovirus: a nationwide, retrospective, population-based, Taiwanese-registry, cohort study. Jiun-Nong Lin et al., The Lancet oncology, epub 27 August 2015. Abstract. "The association between enterovirus infection and the reduced risk of developing leukaemia supports Greaves' delayed infection hypothesis for the cause of childhood leukaemia."

History of Maternal Fetal Loss and Childhood Leukaemia Risk in Subsequent Offspring: Differentials by Miscarriage or Stillbirth History and Disease Subtype. M. A. Karalex et al., Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, epub 14 JUL 2015. Abstract.

Home paint exposures and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: findings from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Bailey HD et al., Cancer Causes Control, epub 2015 Jul 2. Abstract. "Home paint exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy, and/or after birth appeared to increase the risk of childhood ALL. It may be prudent to limit exposure during these periods."

Poverty and the risk of leukemia and cancer in the central nervous system in children: A cohort study in a high-income country. Del Risco Kollerud R et al., Scand J Public Health, epub 2015 Jun 18. Abstract.

Home pesticide exposures and risk of childhood leukemia: Findings from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Bailey HD et al., Int J Cancer, epub 2015 Jun 9. Abstract. Pooled data from from 12 case-control studies in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. ". . . it would appear prudent to limit the use of home pesticides before and during pregnancy, and during childhood."

Breastfeeding and Childhood Leukemia Incidence: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. Amitay EL and Keinan-Boker L, JAMA Pediatr, epub 2015 Jun 1;169(6):e151025. Abstract. "This meta-analysis that included studies not featured in previous meta-analyses on the subject indicates that promoting breastfeeding for 6 months or more may help lower childhood leukemia incidence, in addition to its other health benefits for children and mothers."

Parental smoking, maternal alcohol, coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy, and childhood acute leukemia: the ESTELLE study. Orsi L et al., Cancer Causes Control, epub 2015 May 9. Abstract. "AML, but not ALL, was non-significantly associated with alcohol drinking during pregnancy with a significant positive dose-response trend. Pre-conception paternal smoking was significantly associated with ALL and AML. CL was not associated with maternal smoking, or maternal coffee or tea drinking during pregnancy. However, a high consumption of coffee (>2 cups/day) was significantly associated with ALL."

Race/ethnicity and the risk of childhood leukaemia: a case-control study in California. Race/ethnicity and the risk of childhood leukaemia: a case-control study in California. Oksuzyan S et al., J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Mar 19. Abstract. "Our results confirm that there are ethnic and racial differences in the incidence of childhood leukaemia. These differences indicate that some genetic and/or environmental/cultural factors are involved in aetiology of childhood leukaemia."

Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age. Couto AC et al., Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015 May;24(3):245-52. Abstract. "These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome." Dipyrone is an analgesic that is sold over the counter in some countries.

Antibiotic use from conception to diagnosis of child leukaemia as compared to the background population: A nested case-control study. Gradel KO and Kaerlev L, Pediatr Blood Cancer, epub 2015 Mar 19. Abstract. And: What causes leukemia? Gary Dahl and Joseph Wiemels, Pediatr Blood Cancer, 2015 Jul;62(7):1123-4. (No abstract available.) Comment on the Gradel article; briefly, says more needs to be studied, discusses the drawbacks of this kind of study.

Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Indicators of Early Immune Stimulation: A Childhood Leukemia International Consortium Study. Rudant J et al., Am J Epidemiol, epub 2015 Mar 1. Abstract. "The findings of this large pooled analysis reinforce the hypothesis that day-care center attendance in infancy and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with a decreased risk of ALL."

Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and indicators of early immune stimulation: the Estelle study (SFCE). Ajrouche R et al., Br J Cancer, epub 2015 Feb 12. Abstract. "he results support the hypothesis that conditions promoting the maturation of the immune system in infancy have a protective role with respect to ALL."

CEBPE polymorphism confers an increased risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies with 5,639 cases and 10,036 controls. Wang C et al., Ann Hematol. 2015 Feb;94(2):181-5. Abstract.

2014

Folate Pathway Gene Polymorphisms, Maternal Folic Acid Use, and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Milne E et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, epub 2014 Nov 13. Abstract. "Some folate pathway gene polymorphisms in the child or a parent may influence ALL risk. While biologically plausible, underlying mechanisms for these associations need further elucidation. ORs varied little by maternal folic acid supplementation."

Parental occupational paint exposure and risk of childhood leukemia in the offspring: findings from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Bailey HD et al., Cancer Causes Control, epub 2014 Aug 5. Abstract. "Overall, we found no evidence that parental occupational exposure to paints increases the risk of leukemia in the offspring, but further data on home exposure are needed."

The KIR ligand C2 is associated with increased susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and confers an elevated risk for late relapse. Babor F et al., Blood. 2014 Aug 27. Abstract.

Risk of leukaemia or cancer in the central nervous system among children living in an area with high indoor radon concentrations: results from a cohort study in Norway. Del Risco Kollerud R et al., Br J Cancer, epub 2014 Aug 12. Abstract. "No association was found for childhood leukaemia. An elevated nonsignificant risk for cancer in the central nervous system was observed. This association should be interpreted with caution owing to the crude exposure assessment and possibilities of confounding."

Childhood leukemia mortality and farming exposure in South Korea: A national population-based birth cohort study. Cha ES, Hwang SS, Lee WJ, Cancer Epidemiol, 2014 Aug;38(4):401-7. Abstract. "Our results show an increase in mortality from childhood leukemia in rural areas." I find this study interesting because it followed 6,479,406 children between 1995 and 2006. They found a link between living in farming communities and the use of pesticides with the risk of childhood leukemia. (PF comment)

Association between leukaemia and X-ray in children: A nationwide study. Shih TY et al., J Paediatr Child Health, epub 2014 Jun 9. Abstract. "Overall, the risk of leukaemia in children who underwent X-ray examinations progressively increased from a ratio of 1.65 to 3.14."

Maternal reproductive history, fertility treatments and folic acid supplementation in the risk of childhood acute leukemia: the ESTELLE Study. Ajrouche R et al., Cancer Causes Control, epub 2014 Jul 11. Abstract. "The findings do not suggest that infertility and fertility treatments are risk factors for CL. They suggest that maternal histories of stillbirth and miscarriage may be more frequent among mothers of CL cases and that folic acid supplementation during preconception may reduce the risk of CL."

Exposure to Infections and Risk of Leukemia in Young Children. Marcotte EL et al, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, epub 2014 May 3. Abstract. A study of 3402 cases of ALL in California; "Our results support the hypothesis that infections in early childhood decrease risk of ALL.".

Noncoding RNA-related polymorphisms in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia susceptibility. Gutierrez-Camino A et al., Pediatr Res. 2014 Jun;75(6):767-73. Abstract.

Exposure to infections and Risk of Leukemia in Young Children. Marcotte EL et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, epub 2014 May 3. Abstract. Early exposure to the flu, at 0-3 months, decreased risk of ALL. (I suggest you read the full abstract, or better yet, full text.)

Inherited gene variation tied to high-risk pediatric leukemia, risk of relapse. Lay article in Science Daily, 10/2013. St. Jude research. "The high-risk variant was found in the GATA3 gene. Researchers reported the high-risk version of the gene was more common among Hispanic Americans and other individuals with high Native American ancestry than those of other ethnic backgrounds."

Nuclear power plants and childhood leukaemia: lessons from the past and future directions. Kuehni C, Spycher BD, Swiss Med Wkly, 2014 Apr 2;144:w13912. Abstract.

Mode of Delivery and Risk of Childhood Leukemia. Francis SS, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, epub 2014 Apr 8. Abstract. "Cesarean section delivery seems to be associated with common ALL and Hispanic subjects may be driving the association."

Tobacco smoke and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: findings from the SETIL case-control study. Farioli A et al., Cancer Causes Control, epub 2014 Apr 4. Abstract.

Parental occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of childhood leukemia in the offspring: Findings from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Bailey HD et al., Int J Cancer epub 2014 Mar 19. Abstract. "We also found a slight increase in risk of ALL with paternal exposure around conception which appeared to be more evident in children diagnosed at the age of 5 years or more and those with T cell ALL which raises interesting questions on possible mechanisms."

Mode of Delivery and Risk of Childhood Leukemia. Francis SS et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, epub 2014 Mar 11. Abstract.

Focused screening of a panel of cancer-related genetic polymorphisms reveals new susceptibility loci for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Offenmüller S et al., Pediatr Blood Cancer, epub 2014 Mar 6. Abstract.

Polymorphism of CYP1A1 gene and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Egypt. Agha A et al., Leuk Lymphoma. 2014 Mar;55(3):618-23. Abstract. "Our results suggest that polymorphic variants in the CYP1A1*4 gene may increase the risk of childhood ALL, particularly in male patients aged 2-10 years."

Residential distance at birth from overhead high-voltage powerlines: childhood cancer risk in Britain 1962-2008. Bunch KJ et al., Br J Cancer, epub 2014 Feb 6. Abstract.

Association between NQO1 C609T polymorphism and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk: evidence from an updated meta-analysis based on 17 case-control studies. Li C, Zhou Y. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, epub 2014 Feb 2. Abstract. "Our results indicate that the C609T polymorphism of the NQO1 gene is an important genetic risk factor in ALL."

2013

Children and Adolescents With ALL Are Taller Than Expected at Diagnosis. Huang T, Ducore JM, J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2014 Jan;36(1):16-21. Abstract.

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Hiroto Inaba, Mel Greaves, and Charles G Mullighan, The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 22 March 2013. Abstract. This is a good review paper; focuses on epidemiology to genetic alterations to treatment.

Air pollution and childhood leukaemia: a nationwide case-control study in Italy. Badaloni C et al., Occup Environ Med. 2013 Dec;70(12):876-83. Abstract. "Using various exposure assessment strategies, air pollution appears not to affect the incidence of childhood leukaemia."

Leukaemia in young children in the vicinity of British nuclear power plants: a case-control study. Bithell JF et al., Br J Cancer. 2013 Nov 26;109(11):2880-5. Abstract. "Our results show little evidence of an increase in risk of LNHL to children aged under 5 years from living in the vicinity of an NPP."

Effect of GSTM1 null genotype on risk of childhood acute leukemia: a meta-analysis. Ma Y et al., Tumour Biol, epub 2013 Sep 11. Abstract.

Maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy and risk of childhood acute leukemia: a metaanalysis. Cheng J et al., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Sep 20. Abstract. "The findings of the metaanalysis suggest that maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy may increase the risk of childhood AL. Because of limited studies, further prospective studies are urgently needed to explore the adverse effect of coffee consumption on childhood AL."

Variation at 10p12.2 and 10p14 influences risk of childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and phenotype. Migliorini G et al., Blood. 2013 Nov 7;122(19):3298-307. Abstract.

Genetic loss of SH2B3 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Perez-Garcia A et al., Blood, epub 2013 Aug 1. Abstract.

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic and Myeloid Leukemias by Cytogenetic Subtype. Metayer C et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, epub 2013 Aug 21. Abstract. "Our data suggest that exposure to tobacco smoking was associated with increased risks of childhood ALL and AML; and risks varied by timing of exposure (before and/or after birth) and cytogenetic subtype, based on imprecise estimates."

ARID5B gene rs10821936 polymorphism is associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis based on 39,116 subjects. Guo LM et al., Tumour Biol, epub 2013 Aug 24. Abstract.

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic and Myeloid Leukemias by Cytogenetic Subtype. Metayer C et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, epub 2013 Jul 12. Abstract. "Conclusions: our data suggest that exposure to tobacco smoking before were associated with increased risks of childhood ALL and AML; and risks varied by timing of exposure (before and/or after birth) and cytogenetic subtype, based on imprecise estimates. Impact: Parents should limit exposures to tobacco smoke before and after the child's birth."

Risk of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after parental occupational exposure to solvents and other agents: the SETIL Study. Miligi L et al., Occup Environ Med. 2013 Jun 1. Abstract. "We found increased risk for childhood leukaemia associated with maternal occupational exposure to aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, particularly in the preconception period; increased risks were also observed for paternal exposure to diesel exhaust fumes, mineral oils and lead."

Allergy and acute leukaemia in children with Down syndrome: a population study. Report from the Mexican inter-institutional group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukaemia. Núñez-Enríquez JC et al., Br J Cancer, epub 2013 May 21. Abstract. "Our findings suggest that allergies and AL in children with DS share biological and immune mechanisms. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting associations between allergies and AL in children with DS."

Blood levels of folate at birth and risk of childhood leukemia. Chokkalingam AP et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Apr 10. Abstract. "Our results do not support an association between birth folate concentrations and risk of childhood AML or major ALL subgroups. Impact: However, they do not rule out a role for folate through exposures after birth or in early stages of fetal development."

Exposure to Air Pollution During Pregnancy Linked to Increased Incidence of Specific Pediatric Cancers. Science Daily article April 2013.

Time trends and seasonal variations in the diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in France. Goujon-Bellec S et al., Cancer Epidemiol. 2013 Jan 23. Abstract. "Conclusion: The study showed an increase in childhood ALL risk over 1990-2007, which tended to be stronger for 7-14-year-old Bcp-ALL, particularly in girls (about one case per year, on average). However, although in accordance with the log-linear assumption, the increase in risk seemed less marked after 2001. The study also suggested seasonal variations in the month of diagnosis for 1-6-year-old boys."

Childhood acute leukemia, maternal beverage intake during pregnancy, and metabolic polymorphisms. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr;24(4):783-93. Abstract.

Allergy and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia among children: A nationwide case control study in Greece. Lariou MS et al., Cancer Epidemiol. 2013 Apr;37(2):146-51. Abstract. Allergies are inversely associated with childhood ALL.

Familial history of cancer and leukemia in children younger than 2 years of age in Brazil. Couto AC et al., Eur J Cancer Prev, 2013 Mar;22(2):151-7. Abstract.

Parental alcohol consumption and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Milne E et al., Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Feb;24(2):391-402. Abstract. Interestingly, moderate wine intake of mothers in the year before pregnancy slightly decreased ALL incidence; high beer intake slightly increased incidence. About 700 ALL families studied, compared with similar non-ALL families. Please see the abstract/article for details.

2012

Hospitalisation for infection prior to diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Therese Risom Vestergaard et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer Volume 60, Issue 3, pages 428–432, March 2013. Abstract. A nation-wide cohort encompassing all Danish children aged 0–14 years and born between 1977 and 2008: "The absence of association between hospitalisation for infections and risk of childhood ALL directs future investigations of the role of infections in development of childhood ALL towards exploration of less severe infections."

Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and birthweight: Insights from a pooled analysis of case-control data from Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. Roman E et al., Eur J Cancer, epub 2012 Dec 21. Abstract.

Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: Epidemiology. Logan G. Spector et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer, epub 19 DEC 2012. Abstract. This paper outlines strategies. One exception is a weak link of infant leukemia (MLL positive) with maternal exposure to dietary intake of DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors during pregnancy. These are generally considered "healthy" foods: legumes, onions, apples, berries, soy products, coffee, black and green teas, red wine, caffeinated beverages. Full text of the references article is available.

Fertility treatments, congenital malformations, fetal loss, and childhood acute leukemia: The ESCALE study (SFCE). Jérémie Rudant et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer Volume 60, Issue 2, pages 301–308, February 2013. Abstract. "The results suggest that subfertility in itself and ovulation induction may be associated with ALL, and support a positive association with congenital malformations. The links with the various types of fertility drugs and the underlying causes of infertility need to be investigated further."

XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp polymorphisms in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk: a meta-analysis. Wang R et al., Leuk Lymphoma. 2013 Jan;54(1):153-9. Abstract. "Our results provide evidence that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of childhood ALL in the total population, especially Asians."

Nutrition in early life and risk of childhood leukemia: a case-control study in Greece. Diamantaras AA et al., Cancer Causes Control, epub 2012 Nov 21. Abstract. 139 leukemia cases matched with controls; information on food intake obtained from parent interviews. "Consumption of milk and dairy products in the first year of life may protect against childhood leukemia possibly through vitamin D actions, while added lipids may increase the risk through various mechanisms. These results offer a holistic evaluation of children's nutrition and suggest that dietary habits in the early years of life may contribute to the prevention of childhood leukemia."

Birth weight and other perinatal characteristics and childhood leukemia in California. Oksuzyan S et al., Cancer Epidemiol. 2012 Dec;36(6):e359-65. Abstract. "Our results suggest that high birth weight and LGA [large-for-gestational age] were associated with increased risk and SGA with decreased risk of total childhood leukemia and ALL, being first-born was associated with decreased risk of AML, and advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk of ALL."

Common genetic variation contributes significantly to the risk of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. V Enciso-Mora et al., Leukemia (2012) 26, 2212–2215. Abstract. 'Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided the first unambiguous evidence that common genetic variation influences the risk of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), identifying risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) localizing to 7p12.2, 9p21.3, 10q21.2 and 14q11.2."

Infectious Illness in Children Subsequently Diagnosed With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Modeling the Trends From Birth to Diagnosis. Crouch S et al., Am J Epidemiol., epub 2012 Aug 16. Abstract.

Fetal growth and body size genes and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Chokkalingam AP et a., Cancer Causes Control. 2012 Sep;23(9):1577-85. Abstract. "Our study is the first to identify an association between the genes involved in the IGF axis and risk of childhood ALL. These findings for childhood ALL emphasize the importance of fetal growth, when lymphoid progenitor cells are not yet fully differentiated and therefore more susceptible to malignant transformation."

Reliability of maternal-reports regarding the use of household pesticides: Experience from a case-control study of childhood leukemia. Slusky DA et al., Cancer Epidemiol. 2012 Aug;36(4):375-80. Abstract.

A record-based case-control study of natural background radiation and the incidence of childhood leukaemia and other cancers in Great Britain during 1980-2006. Kendall GM et al., Leukemia, epub 2012 Jun 5. Abstract. "There was 12% excess relative risk of childhood leukaemia per millisievert of cumulative red bone marrow dose from gamma radiation; the analogous association for radon was not significant . . . "

Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study. Mark S Pearce et al., The Lancet, epub 7 June 2012. Abstract. "Use of CT scans in children to deliver cumulative doses of about 50 mGy might almost triple the risk of leukaemia and doses of about 60 mGy might triple the risk of brain cancer. Because these cancers are relatively rare, the cumulative absolute risks are small: in the 10 years after the first scan for patients younger than 10 years, one excess case of leukaemia and one excess case of brain tumour per 10 000 head CT scans is estimated to occur. Nevertheless, although clinical benefits should outweigh the small absolute risks, radiation doses from CT scans ought to be kept as low as possible and alternative procedures, which do not involve ionising radiation, should be considered if appropriate."

Folic acid supplementation, MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms, and the risk of childhood leukemia: the ESCALE study (SFCE). Alicia Amigou et al., Cancer Causes and Control, epub 16 June 2012. Abstract. "The study findings support the hypothesis that maternal folic acid supplementation may reduce the risk of childhood AL. The findings also suggest that the genotype homozygous for any of the MTHFR variants and carrying both MTRR variants could be a risk factor for AL."

Variation in xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes, household chemical exposures, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Anand P. Chokkalingam et al., Cancer Causes and Control, epub 7 June 2012. Abstract. "We identified significant associations of childhood ALL risk with haplotypes of ABCB1, ARNT, CYP2C8, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, and IDH1. In addition, certain haplotypes showed significant joint effects with self-reported household chemical exposures on risk of childhood ALL. Specifically, elevated risks associated with use of paints in the home (ever) and indoor insecticides (pre-birth) were limited to subjects carrying specific haplotypes of CYP2C8 and ABCB1, respectively."

Fertility treatments, congenital malformations, fetal loss, and childhood acute leukemia: The ESCALE study (SFCE). Jérémie Rudant et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer, epub 18 MAY 2012. Abstract. "The results suggest that subfertility in itself and ovulation induction may be associated with ALL, and support a positive association with congenital malformations. The links with the various types of fertility drugs and the underlying causes of infertility need to be investigated further."

Impact of high electromagnetic field levels on childhood leukemia incidence. Jop C. Teepen, Jos A.A.M. van Dijck, International Journal of Cancer, epub 12 APR 2012. Abstract. "The etiology of CL is largely unknown, but is probably multifactorial. EMF may be one of the environmental exposures involved."

High concordance of subtypes of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia within families: lessons from sibships with multiple cases of leukemia. K Schmiegelow et al., Leukemia (2012) 26, 675–681. Abstract. "These data indicate strong genetic and/or environmental risk factors for childhood ALL that are restricted to specific ALL subtypes, which must be taken into account, when performing epidemiological studies to reveal etiological factors." (54 siblings with ALL were studied; an international collaboration.)

2011

Family history of cancer and non-malignant diseases and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A Children's Oncology Group Study. Heather Zierhut, Cancer Epidemiology Volume 36, Issue 1 , Pages 45-51, February 2012. Abstract. The authors found a very slight association with ALL and another family member having cancer. A family history of food allergies, rheumatiod arthritis, or esophageal cancer slightly reduced ALL risk. No association was found with a family history of any autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, birth defects, or thyroid diseases. About 1800 ALL patients were compared with about 1800 controls.

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk for childhood leukemia: A nationwide case-control study in Greece and meta-analysis. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Oct 11. Abstract. Also, comment in the same journal. " . . . this study provides no support to a hypothesis linking maternal smoking during pregnancy with subsequent development of main childhood leukemia subtypes."

Immunophenotype and cytogenetic characteristics in the relationship between birth weight and childhood leukemia. Kate A. O'Neill et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer Volume 58, Issue 1, pages 7–11, January 2012. Abstract.

Childhood leukaemia and socioeconomic status in England and Wales 1976–2005: evidence of higher incidence in relatively affluent communities persists over time. M E Kroll et al., British Journal of Cancer, epub 25 October 2011. Abstract.

Promotional etiology for common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: The infective lymphoid recovery hypothesis. Richard B. Richardson et al., Leukemia Research Volume 35, Issue 11, Pages 1425-1431, November 2011. Abstract.

High concordance of subtypes of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia within families: lessons from sibships with multiple cases of leukemia. K Schmiegelow et al., Leukemia, epub 18 October 2011. Abstract. A small study; briefly, the risk of developing ALL might be inherited, but only for certain sub-types, such as T- or pre-B- or ETV6/RUNX1 or MLL.

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk for childhood leukemia: A nationwide case–control study in Greece and meta-analysis. Alexandra Klimentopoulou et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer, epub 11 OCT 2011. Abstract. ". . . this study provides no support to a hypothesis linking maternal smoking during pregnancy with subsequent development of main childhood leukemia subtypes."

Haplotypes of DNA repair and cell cycle control genes, X-ray exposure, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Anand P. Chokkalingam et allm Cancer Causes and Control, epub 10/14/2011. Abstract. "These results support a role of altered DNA repair and cell cycle processes in the risk of childhood ALL, and show that this genetic susceptibility can differ by cytogenetic subtype and may be modified by exposure to ionizing radiation."

Risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia following parental occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. A Reid et al., British Journal of Cancer, (13 September 2011). Abstract. "We did not find an increased risk of ALL in offspring of parents with occupational exposure to ELF."

Parental occupational exposure to exhausts, solvents, glues and paints, and risk of childhood leukemia. Alison Reid et al., Cancer Causes and Control, epub 8/30/2011. Abstract. "We found little evidence that parental occupational exposure to solvents, glues, and paints was associated with childhood ALL. There was some evidence ALL was associated with exhaust exposure. "

Parental Exposure to Carcinogens and Risk for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Colombia, 2000-2005. Miguel Ángel Castro-Jiménez and Luis Carlos Orozco-Vargas, Preventing Chronic Disease, 2011;8(5):A106. Full text. "In conclusion, this study has several limitations and its results may be prone to bias. However, these findings support the hypothesis that parental occupational exposure to some hydrocarbons before conception may be related to an increased risk of childhood ALL."

Numbers and proportions of leukemias in young people and adults induced by radiation of natural origin. Gerald Kendalla, Mark P. Little and Richard Wakeford, Leukemia Research, Volume 35, Issue 8, August 2011, Pages 1039-1043. Abstract. "We use recent estimates of doses to the red bone marrow to calculate the number and proportion of cases of leukemia in England induced by natural radiation. . . . In young people up to the age of 25 years the attributable fraction is about 15%, substantially lower than a previous estimate." Natural origin radiation includes cosmic rays and long-lived natural radionuclides, e.g., radon. The latter can be either inhaled or ingested. [Note by PF: This is the first article I've read with such a high percentage of cases caused by natural radiation. A decade ago I searched for radon-caused links, and found none.]

Genetic variants in the folate pathway and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Catherine Metayer et al., Cancer Causes and Control, epub 7/2011. Abstract (MTHFR)

Maternal exposure to household chemicals and risk of infant leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Megan E. Slater et al., Cancer Causes and Control, epub July 2011. "Gestational exposure to petroleum products was associated with infant leukemia, particularly AML, and MLL− cases." The study included over 400 children from 1996-2006 and is based on the mother's recall of household chemical use.

Profound deficit of IL10 at birth in children who develop childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Jeffrey S Chang et al., Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, epub 6/10/2011. Abstract.

In vitro fertilization and risk of childhood leukemia in Greece and Sweden. Eleni Th Petridou et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer, epub 25 MAY 2011. "IVF seems to be associated with increased risk of early onset ALL in the offspring."

Western Australian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are taller at diagnosis than unaffected children of the same age and sex. Esther Davis et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer Volume 56, Issue 5, pages 767–770, May 2011. Abstract.

The Association of minor congenital anomalies and childhood cancer. Asude Durmaz, Pediatric Blood & Cancer, published online: 25 FEB 2011. Abstract. "The presence and the combination of minor anomalies seem to be associated with a higher prevalence of cancer." (hypertelorism: increased distance between the eyes, high-arched palate, and hand-foot anomalies)

Early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans and risk of childhood cancer: case-control study. Rajaraman, P. et al., BMJ. 2011 Feb 10;342:d472. Abstract. Full text available. ". . . all of the findings indicate possible risks of cancer from radiation at doses lower than those associated with commonly used procedures such as computed tomography scans, suggesting the need for cautious use of diagnostic radiation imaging procedures to the abdomen/pelvis of the mother during pregnancy and in children at very young ages."

Analgesic use during pregnancy and risk of infant leukaemia: A Children's Oncology Group study. Ognjanovic S et al., British Journal of Cancer, 01/04/2011. Abstract. "Overall, analgesic use during pregnancy was not significantly associated with the risk of infant leukaemia."

2010

Maternal consumption of coffee and tea during pregnancy and risk of childhood ALL: results from an Australian case–control study. Elizabeth Milne et al., Cancer Causes and Control, online Dec. 2010. Abstract. "There was little evidence of an overall association between maternal coffee consumption and risk of ALL: OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.61, 1.30), although there was some suggestion that higher levels of intake might increase the risk in children of non-smoking mothers."

Childhood leukaemia, nuclear sites, and population mixing. L Kinlen, British Journal of Cancer, 9 November 2010. Abstract.

Diagnostic X-rays and risk of childhood leukaemia. Karen Bartley et al., Int. J. Epidemiol. (2010) First published online: October 1, 2010. Abstract. "The results suggest that exposure to post-natal diagnostic X-rays is associated with increased risk of childhood ALL, specifically B-cell ALL, but not AML or T-cell ALL. Given the imprecise measures of self-reported X-ray exposure, the results of this analysis should be interpreted with caution and warrant further investigation." (odds ratio1.40)

Childhood cancer trends in a western Canadian province: A population-based 22-year retrospective study. Rhonda J. Rosychuk et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer Pediatric Blood & Cancer, first published online: 21 SEP 2010. Abstract. "The number of malignant cases varied over year with crude rates of 13.4 per 100,000 in 1982/1983 to 17.3 per 100,000 in 2003/2004."

Exposure to diagnostic radiological procedures and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Helen D Bailey et al., Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Published OnlineFirst September 22, 2010. Abstract. "Diagnostic irradiation of the mother during pregnancy increases the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). There is inconsistent evidence on associations between ALL and other parental or childhood diagnostic irradiation. . . . Conclusions: There was some evidence of an increased risk of ALL in the offspring if the father had more than one abdominal x-ray before conception or had ever had an IVP."

Minor anomalies in children with hematological malignancies. Funda Erkasar Citak et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer, first published online: 21 SEP 2010. Abstract. ". . . minor anomalies detected, pigmented nevi and café-au-lait spots were significantly more frequent in the patients. The prevalence of minor anomalies in the patients was significantly higher than that of the controls in the present study."

Genetic Polymorphisms in Adaptive Immunity Genes and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Jeffrey S. Chang et al., Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 2010. Abstract. "Results of this study support an immune-related etiology of childhood ALL."

Exposure to house painting and the use of floor treatments and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Helen D Bailey et al., International Journal of Cancer, early release 8/12/2010. Abstract.

Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk? Elvira Vaclavik Bräuner et al., Cancer Causes and Control, 2010. Abstract. "Air pollution from traffic may enhance the effect of radon on the risk of childhood leukemia. The observed tendency may also be attributed to chance." Note: "In a recent population-based case–control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. "

Not leukemia, but nevertheless interesting: Tonsillitis, tonsillectomy and Hodgkins lymphoma. International Journal of Cancer, 04/21/10. "An increased HL risk was found both after tonsillectomy and after an isolated diagnosis of tonsillitis. These results suggest that tonsillitis is a risk factor for HL and not that, as previously reported, only the surgical removal of tonsils is a risk factor." Abstract.

Genome-wide homozygosity signatures and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Fay J. Hosking et al., Blood First Edition Paper, prepublished online March 15, 2010. Abstract. "Our findings make it unlikely that levels of measured homozygosity, caused by autozygosity, uniparental isodisomy or hemizygosity play a major role in defining BCP-ALL risk in predominantly outbred populations."

Genetic susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia shows protection in Malay boys: Results from the Malaysia-Singapore ALL Study Group. Allen Eng-Juh Yeoh et al., Leukemia Research, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp. 276-283 (March 2010). Abstract.

Childhood leukaemia and parental occupational exposure to pesticides: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Geneviève Van Maele-Fabry et al., Cancer Causes and Control, online February 21, 2010. Abstract. "The strongest evidence of an increased risk of childhood leukaemia comes from studies with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides. The associations with paternal exposure were weaker and less consistent."

Childhood cancer clustering in Florida: Weighing the evidence. Kimberly J. Johnson, PhD , Susan E. Puumala, MS. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, Volume 54, Issue 4, 2010, pp. 493-494. Editorial.

Epidemiologic mapping of Florida childhood cancer clusters. Raid Amin et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer, Volume 54, Issue 4, 2010, pp. 511-518. Abstract. "There is evidence of spatial and space-time childhood cancer clustering in SF and NEF. This evidence is suggestive of the presence of possible predisposing factors in these cluster regions."

A meta-analysis of the association between day-care attendance and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Kevin Y Urayama et al., International Journal of Epidemiology, IJE Advance Access, 10.1093. Abstract. Full text available. (Reports a reduced risk of ALL with preschool attendance. Details in the article.)

Genetic variation in the folate metabolic pathway and risk of childhood leukemia. Tracy J Lightfoot et al., Blood First Edition Paper, prepublished January 25, 2010. Abstract. ". . . in children an increased risk of ALL and AML was observed with the MTR 2756 GG genotype; the association most pronounced for cases with the MLL translocation . . . "

Maternal folate and other vitamin supplementation during pregnancy and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the offspring. Elizabeth Milne et al., International Journal of Cancer, Published Online: 16 Oct 2009. Abstract. From The Australian Study of Causes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children (Aus-ALL), 2003-7. "Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy may protect against childhood ALL, but this effect is unlikely to be large or, if real, specifically due to folate."

2009

Cancer incidence in the vicinity of Finnish nuclear power plants: an emphasis on childhood leukemia. Sirpa Heinävaara et al., Cancer Causes and Control, online first December 26, 2009. Abstract. "Our results do not indicate an increase in childhood leukemia and other cancers in the vicinity of Finnish NPPs though the small sample size limits the strength of conclusions."

Allergy and the risk of childhood leukemia: a meta-analysis. S Dahl et al., Leukemia, Dec. 2009 Volume 23 Number 12, pp. 2300–2304. Abstract.

Comparison of birth weight corrected for gestational age and birth weight alone in prediction of development of childhood leukemia and central nervous system tumors. Michael R. Sprehe et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer, Volume 54, Issue 2, 2010, pp. 242-249. Abstract.

Association Between DEFB1 Gene Haplotype and Herpes Viruses Seroprevalence in Children with ALL. Riccardina Tesse et al., Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Volume 26, Issue 8 November 2009, pp. 573-582. Abstract.

Hereditary hemochromatosis gene (HFE) variants are associated with birth weight and childhood leukemia risk. M. Tevfik Dorak et al., Pediatric Blood & Cancer, Volume 53, Issue 7, 2009, pp. 1242-1248. Abstract.

Factors Associated With Residential Mobility in Children With Leukemia: Implications For Assigning Exposures. Kevin Y. Urayama et al., Annals of Epidemiology, Volume 19, Issue 11, Pages 834-840 (November 2009). Abstract. Another study of how moving from one geographic location to another affects risk of leukemia.

No Risk of Maternal EBV Infection for Childhood Leukemia. Rosamaria Tedeschi et al., Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 09/18/09. Abstract.

Estrogen treatment induces MLL aberrations in human lymphoblastoid cells. Schnyder S et al., Leuk Res. 2009 Oct;33(10):1400-4. Epub 2009 Mar 5. PubMed abstract. "We conclude that concentrations of E2 and 4-OH-E2 that may occur during pregnancy, or during use of oral contraceptives, can cause aberrations of the MLL gene and could thus be a factor in the early events of leukemogenesis occurring in utero."

Fetal Growth and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results From an Australian Case-Control Study. E. Milne et al., American Journal of Epidemiology Advance Access published online on May 28, 2009. Abstract. "Results of this study confirm earlier findings of a positive association between rapidity of fetal growth and subsequent risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood, and they are consistent with a role for insulin-like growth factors in the causal pathway."

High hyperdiploid childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (review article). Kajsa Paulsson and Bertil Johansson, Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, Published Online: 4 May 2009. Abstract. (Discusses etiology of high hyperdiploid ALL, with a general discussion of ALL etiology.)

The proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionizing radiation. R Wakeford, G M Kendall and M P Little, Leukemia 23: 770-776; advance online publication, January 8, 2009. Abstract.

Childhood acute leukemia and residence next to gas stations and automotive repair garages: the ESCALE study (SFCE*). Pauline Brosselin et al., Occup Environ Med. Published Online First: 12 February 2009. Abstract.

Infectious proxies and childhood leukaemia: Findings from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS). Eve Roman et al., Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases, Volume 42, Issue 2, March-April 2009, Pages 126-128. Abstract.

Allergies and childhood leukemia. Jeffrey S. Chang et al., Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases. Volume 42, Issue 2, March-April 2009, Pages 99-104. Abstract. "In this review, we provide an overview of recent findings from the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) on factors related to the immune system including child's vaccination history and measures of child's exposure to infectious agents, namely daycare attendance, infection during infancy, and parental social contact in the work place."

Infection and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Xiaomei Ma et al., Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases, Volume 42, Issue 2, March-April 2009, Pages 117-120. Abstract.

The human major histocompatibility complex and childhood leukemia: An etiological hypothesis based on molecular mimicry. Malcolm Taylor et al., Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases, Volume 42, Issue 2, March-April 2009, Pages 129-135. Abstract. "Efforts are currently in progress to resolve these questions, using large leukemia case-control sample series such as the UK Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) and the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS). Here we review the background to these studies, and present a novel hypothesis based on the paradigm of HLA-associated auto-immune disease that might explain an infection-based etiology of childhood leukemia."

Birth weight and childhood leukemia: A meta-analysis and review of the current evidence. International Journal of Cancer, Robert W. Caughey and Karin B. Michels, Published Online: 18 Dec 2008. Abstract. "The combined available evidence from observational studies suggests that high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of overall leukemia and ALL. For AML the risk may be elevated at both high and low extremes of birth weight. . . "

Cured meat, vegetables, and bean-curd foods in relation to childhood acute leukemia risk: A population based case-control study. Chen-yu Liu et al., BMC Cancer 2009, 9:15. Abstract. "Dietary exposure to cured /smoked meat and fish may be associated with leukemia risk through their contents of nitrites and nitrosamines among children and adolescents, and intake of vegetables and bean-curd foods may be protective."

2008

Etiology of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the adrenal hypothesis. K Schmiegelow et al. Leukemia (2008) 22, 2137–2141. Abstract.

Infections in early life and childhood leukaemia risk: a UK case–control study of general practitioner records. C R Cardwell et al. British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 30 September 2008. Abstract. "Our study provides no support for the Greaves hypothesis, which proposes that reduced or delayed exposure to infections in early life increases the risk of childhood ALL."

Prenatal origin of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, association with birth weight and hyperdiploidy. B Gruhn et al. Leukemia (2008) 22, 1692–1697. Abstract.

A population-based, case–control study of green tea consumption and leukemia risk in southwestern Taiwan. Yau-Chang Kuo et al. Abstract. Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Etiology of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the adrenal hypothesis. K Schmiegelow, T Vestergaard, S M Nielsen and H Hjalgrim. Leukemia advance online publication 21 August 2008. Abstract. More on early childhood infections and the incidence of leukemia.

Socioeconomic status and childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia incidence in São Paulo, Brazil. Karina Braga Ribeiro et al. International Journal of Cancer, Volume 123 Issue 8, Pages 1907-1912, 2008. Abstract. (". . . early exposure to childhood infections, which has been found to decrease the risk of ALL.")

Childhood Leukaemia Near Nuclear Installations. Joseph Mangano and Janette D. Sherman. Letter to the editor, European Journal of Cancer Care. Volume 17 Issue 4, Pages 416 - 418, 2008. Link. Full text of this letter (not generally available) is useful, as it provides useful tables and links validating increased incidence of childhood leukemia, especially near power plants.

What do epidemiologists mean by population mixing? Graham R. Law et al. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:155-160, 2008. Abstract.

Risk of Childhood Leukemia Associated with Vaccination, Infection, and Medication Use in Childhood. The Cross-Canada Childhood Leukemia Study. Amy C. MacArthur, Mary L. McBride, John J. Spinelli, Sharon Tamaro, Richard P. Gallagher and Gilles P. Theriault. American Journal of Epidemiology 2008 167(5):598-606. Abstract.

Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark. Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole a et al. Epidemiology. 19(4):536-543, July 2008. Abstract.

2007

Leukaemia in young children living in the vicinity of German nuclear power plant. Peter Kaatsch et al. International Journal of Cancer, Volume 122, Issue 4, Pages 721 - 726. Abstract.

Childhood leukaemia and infectious exposure: A report from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS). J. Simpson, A. Smith, P. Ansell, E. Roman. European Journal of Cancer, Volume 43, Issue 16, Pages 2396-2403. Abstract.

Adenovirus DNA is detected at increased frequency in Guthrie cards from children who develop acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Gustafsson, B., et al. Br J Cancer. 2007 Oct 8;97(7):992-4. PubMed Abstract.

Parental social contact in the work place and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Chang, J.S., et al. Br J Cancer. 2007 Oct 9. PubMed Abstract.

Evidence of population mixing based on the geographical distribution of childhood leukemia in Ohio. Brenda R. Clark, Amy K. Ferketich, James L. Fisher, Frederick B. Ruymann, Randall E. Harris, John R. Wilkins III. Pediatric Blood & Cancer Volume 49, Issue 6, 2007, p. 797-902. Abstract.

Increasing incidence of childhood leukaemia: a controversy re-examined. Shah, A., et al. Br J Cancer. 2007 Aug 21. PubMed abstract. "We provide evidence of a gradual increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia over the twentieth century from examination of trends in both incidence and mortality in England and Wales. We conclude that much of the recorded increase is likely to be real."

MDR1 Gene Variants, Indoor Insecticide Exposure, and the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Urayama, K.Y., et al. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 16, 1172-1177, June 1, 2007. Abstract.

Maternal alcohol and coffee drinking, parental smoking and childhood leukaemia: a French population-based case-control study. Menegaux, F., et al. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2007 Jul;21(4):293-9. PubMed abstract.

MDR1 Gene Variants, Indoor Insecticide Exposure, and the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Kevin Y. Urayama et al. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 16, 1172-1177, June 1, 2007. Abstract.

Residential mobility and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: an ecological study. Adelman, A. S., et al. Br J Cancer. 2007 May 29. PubMed Abstract.

New germline mutations in the hypervariable minisatellite CEB1 in the parents of children with leukaemia -- British Journal of Cancer. B G Davies., et al. PubMed abstract. "Gardner and co-workers advanced the hypothesis that the Seascale leukaemia cluster could have been caused by new mutations in germ cells, induced by paternal preconceptional irradiation (PPI) exposure at the Sellafield nuclear installation."

Effects of maternal age and cohort of birth on incidence time trends of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1 Feb 2007 16(2): p. 347. MM Maule, F Merletti, G Pastore, C Magnani, and L Richiardi. Abstract.

2006

Birth characteristics, maternal reproductive history, and the risk of infant leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Logan G. Spector, et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jan;16(1):128-34. PubMed abstract.

Number of Siblings and the Risk of Lymphoma, Leukemia, and Myeloma by Histopathology. Andrea Altieri, Felipe Castro, Justo Lorenzo Bermejo and Kari Hemminki. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Vol. 15, 1281-1286, July 2006 American Association for Cancer Research. Abstract.

Population-mixing at the place of residence at the time of birth and incidence of childhood leukaemia in France. European Journal of Cancer, Volume 42, Issue 7 , May 2006, Pages 927-933. J. Rudanta, B. Baccaïnib, M. Riperta, A. Goubina, S. Belleca, D. Hémona and J. Clave. Abstract. "The findings are consistent with epidemic models and support the hypothesis of an infectious aetiology relating to population-mixing. Population density may be seen as an indicator of the opportunity of contacts between inhabitants and should therefore be taken into account when investigating an infectious hypothesis."

Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukaemia. C C McLaughlin, M S Baptiste, M J Schymura1,2, P C Nasca and M S Zdeb. British Journal of Cancer (2006) 94, 1738-1744. Abstract.

Magnetic field exposure and long-term survival among children with leukaemia. D E Foliart, B H Pollock, G Mezei, R Iriye, J M Silva, K L Ebi, L Kheifets, M P Link, and R Kavet. British Journal of Cancer (2006) 94, 161-164. Abstract.

2005

Agricultural pesticides and lymphoproliferative childhood cancer in California. Reynolds P, Von Behren J, Gunier R, Goldberg DE, Hertz A. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005;31 Suppl 1:46-54; discussion 5-7. PubMed Abstract.

Maternal pregnancy loss, birth characteristics, and childhood leukemia (United States). Ma X, Metayer C, Does MB, Buffler PA. Cancer Causes Control. 2005 Nov;16(9):1075-83. Abstract.

Community Clusters of Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma: Evidence of Infection? Clark W. Heath Jr. American Journal of Epidemiology Advance Access published online on September 21, 2005. Abstract.

Day care in infancy and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: findings from UK case-control study. C Gilham, J Peto, J Simpson, E Roman, T O B Eden, M F Greaves, F E Alexander, for the UKCCS Investigators. BMJ (published 22 April 2005) Abstract. Full text.

Urbanisation and incidence of acute lymphocytic leukaemia among United States children aged 0-4. British Journal of Cancer (2005) 92, 2084-2088. Published online 10 May 2005. A S Adelman, C C McLaughlin, X-C Wu, V W Chen and F D Groves.

Living near high-voltage power lines could cause leukaemia. Khabir Ahmad. Lancet Oncology, Volume 6, Issue 7, July 2005, Page 450. Abstract.

Molecular biomarkers for the study of childhood leukemia. Smith MT, McHale CM, Wiemels JL, Zhang L, Wiencke JK, Zheng S, Gunn L, Skibola CF, Ma X, Buffler PA. Abstract.

Associations between Three Types of Maternal Bacterial Infection and Risk of Leukemia in the Offspring. Matti Lehtinen, Helga M. Ögmundsdottir, Aini Bloigu, Timo Hakulinen, Elina Hemminki, Margret Gudnadottir, Anne Kjartansdottir, Jorma Paavonen, Eero Pukkala, Hrafn Tulinius, Tuula Lehtinen, and Pentti Koskela. American Journal of Epidemiology Advance Access published online on August 24, 2005. Abstract.

Ethnic Difference in Daycare Attendance, Early Infections, and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Xiaomei Ma, Patricia A. Buffler, Joseph L. Wiemels, Steve Selvin, Catherine Metayer, Mignon Loh, Monique B. Does and John K. Wiencke. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Vol. 14, 1928-1934, August 2005. Abstract.

Maternal Diet and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Young Children. Eleni Petridou1,2, Evangelos Ntouvelis1, Nick Dessypris1, Agapios Terzidis1, Dimitrios Trichopoulos1,2 and the Childhood Hematology-Oncology Group. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Vol. 14, 1935-1939, August 2005. Abstract.

2004

The prenatal origin of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Taub JW, Ge Y. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004 Jan;45(1):19-25. Abstract.

Posters from the leukemia causes conference 9/6/04 in London.

Maternal dietary risk factors in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (United States). Jensen CD, Block G, Buffler P, Ma X, Selvin S, Month S. Cancer Causes Control. 2004 Aug;15(6):559-70. PubMed Abstract. NIEHS press release.

Leukemia clusters paper. Occasional paper No 1 of the Occasional Papers of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. (I have a copy of this paper.)

An infectious aetiology for childhood acute leukaemia: a review of the evidence. McNally RJ, Eden TO. Br J Haematol. 2004 Nov;127(3):243-63. Abstract.

2003

Family history of autoimmune thyroid disease and childhood acute leukemia. Perillat-Menegaux F, Clavel J, Auclerc MF, Baruchel A, Leverger G, Nelken B, Philippe N, Sommelet D, Vilmer E, Hemon D. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Jan;12(1):60-3. PubMed Abstract.

2002

Critical Windows of Exposure to Household Pesticides and Risk of Childhood Leukemia. Xiaomei Ma, Patricia A. Buffler, Robert B. Gunier, Gary Dahl,3 Martyn T. Smith, Kyndaron Reinier, and Peggy Reynolds, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 110, No. 9, September 2002. Available online on the Environmental Health Perspectives web site. (I have a pdf copy of this paper.)

Parental medication use and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Wen W, Shu XO, Potter JD, Severson RK, Buckley JD, Reaman GH, Robison LL. Cancer. 2002 Oct 15;95(8):1786-94. (I have a pdf of this paper.) PubMed abstract.

Presence of clone-specific markers at birth in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Hjalgrim LL, Madsen HO, Melbye M, Jorgensen P, Christiansen M, Andersen MT, Pallisgaard N, Hokland P, Clausen N, Ryder LP, Schmiegelow K, Hjalgrim H. Br J Cancer. 2002 Oct 21;87(9):994-9. PubMed abstract.

Preferential loss of maternal 9p alleles in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Morison IM, Ellis LM, Teague LR, Reeve AE. Blood. 2002 Jan 1;99(1):375-7. PubMed abstract. Online article in the New Zealand Herald: Leukaemia study points to pre-birth factors in disease.

2001

Infective cause of childhood leukaemia and wartime population mixing in Orkney and Shetland, UK L J Kinlen, A Balkwill, Lancet Volume 357, Number 9259 17 March 2001.

2000

The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study. Kinlen LJ. Br J Cancer 2000 Mar;82(5):999. PubMed.

Paternal military service and risk for childhood leukemia in offspring. Wen WQ, Shu XO, Steinbuch M, Severson RK, Reaman GH, Buckley JD, Robison LL. Am J Epidemiol 2000 Feb 1;151(3):231-40. PubMed abstract.

Incidence of childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in northwest England. Richard J Q McNally, Jillian M Birch, G Malcolm Taylor, Osborn B Eden. THE LANCET • Vol 356 • August 5, 2000. I have a pdf of this article. PubMed abstract.

Early Child-Care and Preschool Experiences and the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Paula F. Rosenbaum et al., Am. J. Epidemiol. (2000) 152 (12): 1136-1144. Full text.

1999

Viral Causes of Malignancy, from Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center. 1999 MedScape article. (JCV linked to ALL.)

Quantifying the effect of population mixing on childhood leukaemia risk: the Seascale cluster. Dickinson HO, Parker L. Br J Cancer 1999 Sep;81(1):144-51. PubMed abstract.

Are the children of fathers whose jobs involve contact with many people at an increased risk of leukaemia? Fear NT, Roman E, Reeves G, Pannett B. Occup Environ Med 1999 Jul;56(7):438-42. PubMed abstract.

Prenatal origin of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. J L Wiemels, G Cazzaniga, M Daniotti, O B Eden, G M Addison, G Masera, V Saha, A Biondi, M F Greaves. Lancet Volume 354 Issue 9189 Page 1499 1999. I have the pdf of this article.

Exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood cancer. UK Childhood Cancer Study Investigators. Lancet Volume 354 Issue 9194 Page 1925 1999. I have a pdf of this article.

Building a network of research in children's environmental health. Dearry AD, Collman GW, Saint C, Fields N, Redd S. Environ Health Perspect 1999 Jun;107 Suppl 3:391. Pub Med Abstract. Full Text.

Infant vaccinations and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the USA. Groves FD, Gridley G, Wacholder S, Shu XO, Robison LL, Neglia JP, Linet MS. Br J Cancer 1999 Sep;81(1):175-8. PubMed abstract.

A quest for seasonality in presentation of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Douglas S, Cortina-Borja M, Cartwright R. Leuk Lymphoma 1999 Feb;32(5-6):523-32. PubMed abstract.

Preconceptional paternal exposure to pesticides and increased risk of childhood leukaemia. Infante-Rivard C, Sinnett D. Lancet 1999 Nov 20;354(9192):1819.

Infant vaccinations and risk of childhood acue lymphoblastic leukaemia in the USA. Groves FD, GridletyG, Wacholder S et al. British Journal of Cancer 1999;81(1): 175-178. "Many studies have looked at the risk of leukaemia following vaccination for the usual infections of childhood (polio, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, rubella), and most have reported a protective effect. A recent study from the united states has found no general effect either positive or negative, but suggests that the Hib vaccine may be protective."

The role of parvovirus B19 infection in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Heegaard ED, Jensen L, Hornsleth A, Schmiegelow K. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1999 Jul-Aug;16(4):329-34. PubMed abstract.

Acute leukemias in children from the city of Kiev and Kiev region after the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Gluzman DF, Abramenko IV, Sklyarenko LM, Nadgornaya VA, Zavelevich MP, Bilous NI, Poludnenko LY. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1999 Jul-Aug;16(4):355-60. PubMed abstract.

Higher risk for acute childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia in Swedish population centres 1973-94. Swedish Child Leukaemia Group. Hjalmars U, Gustafsson G. Br J Cancer 1999 Jan;79(1):30-3. PubMed abstract.

Association of childhood leukaemia with factors related to the immune system. Schuz J, Kaletsch U, Meinert R, Kaatsch P, Michaelis J. Br J Cancer 1999 May;80(3-4):585-90. PubMed abstract.

1998

Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer. Colt JS, Blair A. Environ Health Perspect 1998 Jun;106 Suppl 3:909-25. PubMed abstract.

1997

High-contact paternal occupations, infection and childhood leukaemia: five studies of unusual population-mixing of adults. Kinlen LJ. 1: Br J Cancer 1997;76(12):1539-45. PubMed abstract.

Residential Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children. Linet MS, Hatch EE, , Kleinerman RA. Et al. The New England Journal of Medicine July 3, 1997 Vol. 337 No.1. Oncolink review.

Cancer in the offspring of radiation workers: a record linkage study. Draper GJ, Little MP, Sorahan T, Kinlen LJ, Bunch KJ, Conquest AJ, Kendall GM, Kneale GW, Lancashire RJ, Muirhead CR, O'Connor CM, Vincent TJ. BMJ 1997 Nov 8;315(7117):1181-8. PubMed abstract. Full Text article.

Seasonality in the diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Badrinath P, Day NE, Stockton D. Br J Cancer 1997;75(11):1711-3. PubMed abstract.

1995

Childhood leukemia and rural population movements: Greece, Italy, and other countries. Kinlen LJ, Petridou E. Cancer Causes Control 1995 Sep;6(5):445-50. PubMed abstract.

Childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma near large rural construction sites, with a comparison with Sellafield nuclear site. Kinlen LJ, Dickson M, Stiller CA. BMJ 1995 Mar 25;310(6982):763-8. PubMed abstract. Full text.

1993

An infectious etiology for common acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood? Greaves MF, Alexander FE. Leukemia. 1993 Mar;7(3):349-60. Abstract.

1992

Is acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children virus-related? MacMahon B. Am J Epidemiol 1992 Oct 15;136(8):916-24. PubMed abstract.

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