Resources and information for parents of children with cancer . . . by parents of children with cancer.

MRD complete bibliography

The following list of articles on MRD is a fall-out of the author's interest in MRD and the writing of the MRD section.

2010

Immunologic minimal residual disease detection in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A comparative approach to molecular testing. Elaine Coustan-Smith and Dario Campana, Best Practice & Research: Clinical Haematology, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp. 347-358 (September 2010). Abstract. "In this article, we discuss methodologic issues related to the immunologic monitoring of MRD and the evidence supporting its clinical significance, and compare the advantages and limitations of this approach to those of molecular monitoring of MRD."

2005

An educational slide presentation on ALL from ASCO. For MRD, go to the link and click on presentation number 3: Detection of Minimal Residual Disease in Childhood Cancers.

2002

Use of peripheral blood instead of bone marrow to monitor residual disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Elaine Coustan-Smith, Jose Sancho, Michael L. Hancock, Bassem I. Razzouk, Raul C. Ribeiro, Gaston K. Rivera, Jeffrey E. Rubnitz, John T. Sandlund, Ching-Hon Pui, and Dario Campana. Blood, 1 October 2002, Vol. 100, No. 7, pp. 2399-2402. Abstract. (Full text is available online.)

2000

Detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia. Sievers EL, Radich JP. Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Jul;7(4):212-6. PubMed abstract.

Clinical applicability of the evaluation of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia. Radich JP. Curr Opin Oncol 2000 Jan;12(1):36-40. PubMed abstract. Full text. I have a pdf of this article.

1999

Primers and protocols for standardized detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia using immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene rearrangements and TAL1 deletions as PCR targets: report of the BIOMED-1 CONCERTED ACTION: investigation of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia. Pongers-Willemse MJ, Seriu T, Stolz F, d'Aniello E, Gameiro P, Pisa P, Gonzalez M, Bartram CR, Panzer-Grumayer ER, Biondi A, San Miguel JF, van Dongen JJ. Leukemia 1999 Jan;13(1):110-8. PubMed abstract.

Flow cytometric analysis of normal B cell differentiation: a frame of reference for the detection of minimal residual disease in precursor-B-ALL. Lucio P, Parreira A, van den Beemd MW, van Lochem EG, van Wering ER, Baars E, Porwit-MacDonald A, Bjorklund E, Gaipa G, Biondi A, Orfao A, Janossy G, van Dongen JJ, San Miguel JF. Leukemia 1999 Mar;13(3):419-27. PubMed abstract.

Development and validation of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to evaluate minimal residual disease for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and follicular lymphoma. Hosler GA, Bash RO, Bai X, Jain V, Scheuermann RH Am J Pathol 1999 Apr;154(4):1023-35 abstract

Cross-lineage T cell receptor gene rearrangements occur in more than ninety percent of childhood precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemias: alternative PCR targets for detection of minimal residual disease. abstract Szczepanski T, Beishuizen A, Pongers-Willemse MJ, Hahlen K, Van Wering ER, Wijkhuijs AJ, Tibbe GJ, De Bruijn MA, Van Dongen JJ. Leukemia 1999 Feb;13(2):196-205.

1998

Prognostic value of immunophenotypic detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. abstract Ciudad J, San Miguel JF, Lopez-Berges MC, Vidriales B, Valverde B, Ocqueteau M, Mateos G, Caballero MD, Hernandez J, Moro MJ, Mateos MV, Orfao A. J Clin Oncol 1998 Dec;16(12):3774-81.

Detection of minimal residual disease in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by quantitative flow cytometry. Farahat N, Morilla A, Owusu-Ankomah K, et al. Br J Haematol 1998; 101: 158-64.

The presence of typical and atypical BCR-ABL fusion genes in leukocytes of normal individuals: biologic significance and implications for the assessment of minimal residual disease. abstract Bose S, Deininger M, Gora-Tybor J, Goldman JM, Melo JV. Blood 1998 Nov 1;92(9):3362-7.

Real-time quantitative PCR for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia using junctional region specific TaqMan probes. abstract Pongers-Willemse MJ, Verhagen OJ, Tibbe GJ, Wijkhuijs AJ, de Haas V, Roovers E, van der Schoot CE, van Dongen JJ. Leukemia 1998 Dec;12(12):2006-14.

Prognostic value of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood. van Dongen JJ, Seriu T, Panzer-Grumayer ER, Biondi A, Pongers-Willemse MJ, Corral L, Stolz F, Schrappe M, Masera G, Kamps WA, Gadner H, van Wering ER, Ludwig WD, Basso G, de Bruijn MA, Cazzaniga G, Hettinger K, van der Does-van den Berg A, Hop WC, Riehm H, Bartram CR. Lancet 1998 Nov 28;352(9142):1731-8. PubMed abstract. I have a copy of this article and discuss it on the MRD page.

Minimal residual disease status before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is an important determinant of successful outcome for children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. abstract Knechtli CJ, Goulden NJ, Hancock JP, Grandage VL, Harris EL, Garland RJ, Jones CG, Rowbottom AW, Hunt LP, Green AF, Clarke E, Lankester AW, Cornish JM, Pamphilon DH, Steward CG, Oakhill A. Blood 1998 Dec 1;92(11):4072-9.

Immunological detection of minimal residual disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Coustan-Smith E, Behm FG, Sanchez J, Boyett JM, Hancock ML, Raimondi SC, Rubnitz JE, Rivera GK, Sandlund JT, Pui CH, Campana D. Lancet 1998 Feb 21;351(9102):550-4. PubMed abstract. I have a copy of this article and discuss it on the MRD page.

Expression of CD10, CD19 and CD34 markers in bone marrow samples of children with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in clinical and hematological remission. Cap J, Babusikova O, Kaiserova E, Jamarik M. Neoplasma 1998;45(4):231-6. PubMed abstract.

Rapid detection of gammaT cell receptor gene rearrangements in acute lymphoblastic leukemia by electrophoresis and silver staining: implications for detection of minimal residual disease. abstract Valetto A, Lanciotti M, Di Martino D, Anselmi G, Bottini F, Mori P, Candiano G. Electrophoresis 1998 Jun;19(8-9):1385-7.

Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are less mature in adults than in children: implications for selection of PCR targets for detection of minimal residual disease. abstract Szczepanski T, Langerak AW, Wolvers-Tettero IL, Ossenkoppele GJ, Verhoef G, Stul M, Petersen EJ, de Bruijn MA, van't Veer MB, van Dongen JJ. Leukemia 1998 Jul;12(7):1081-8.

Detection of minimal residual disease: methods and relationship to outcome in T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. abstract Dibenedetto SP, Lo Nigro L, Di Cataldo A, Schiliro G. Leuk Lymphoma 1998 Dec;32(1-2):65-75.

Clinical significance of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer--Childhood Leukemia Cooperative Group. Cave H, van der Werff ten Bosch J, Suciu S, Guidal C, Waterkeyn C, Otten J, Bakkus M, Thielemans K, Grandchamp B, Vilmer E. N Engl J Med 1998 Aug 27;339(9):591-8. PubMed abstract. I have a hard copy of this article and discuss it on the MRD pages.

Detection of minimal residual disease: methods and relationship to outcome in T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Dibenedetto SP, Lo Nigro L, Di Cataldo A, Schiliro G. Leuk Lymphoma 1998 Dec;32(1-2):65-75. PubMed abstract.

1997

The use of monoclonal gene rearrangement for detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of childhood. abstract Sykes PJ, Snell LE, Brisco MJ, Neoh SH, Hughes E, Dolman G, Peng LM, Bennett A, Toogood I, Morley AA. Leukemia 1997 Jan;11(1):153-8.

Increased sensitivity of minimal residual disease detection by interphase FISH in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with hyperdiploidy. abstract Kasprzyk A, Secker-Walker LM. Leukemia 1997 Mar;11(3):429-35.

Advances in the detection of minimal residual disease. abstract Radich J, Thomson B. Curr Opin Hematol 1997 Jul;4(4):242-7.

Effect of the Philadelphia chromosome on minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. abstract Brisco MJ, Sykes PJ, Dolman G, Neoh SH, Hughes E, Peng LM, Tauro G, Ekert H, Toogood I, Bradstock K, Morley AA. Leukemia 1997 Sep;11(9):1497-500.

Measurement of residual leukemia during remission in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Roberts WM, Estrov Z, Ouspenskaia MV, Johnston DA, McClain KL, Zipf TF. N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 30;336(5):317-23. PubMed abstract. I have a hard copy of this article and discuss it on the MRD pages.

Improved detection of minimal residual leukemia through modifications of polymerase chain reaction analyses based on clonospecific T cell receptor junctions. Seriu T, Hansen-Hagge TE, Erz DHR, Bartram CR. Leukemia 1997; 11: 2200-07.

Monitoring minimal residual disease in peripheral blood in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Brisco MJ, Sykes PJ, Hughes E, et al. Br J Haematol 1997; 99: 314-19.

1996

Detection of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia after termination of therapy. abstract Wu NH, Lu SG, Zhu P, Peng YY. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1996 May-Jun;13(3):257-63.

Long-term follow-up of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients by polymerase chain reaction analysis of multiple clone-specific or malignancy-specific gene markers. abstract Kuang S, Gu L, Dong S, Cao Q, Xu C, Huang W, Su XY, Huang QH, Xie JX, Chen SJ, Chen Z. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1996 Jun;88(2):110-7.

Relationship between minimal residual disease and outcome in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. abstract Brisco J, Hughes E, Neoh SH, Sykes PJ, Bradstock K, Enno A, Szer J, McCaul K, Morley AA. Blood 1996 Jun 15;87(12):5251-6.

Detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia patients. Van Dongen JJM, Szczep’nski T, de Bruijn MAC, et al. Cytokines Mol Ther 1996; 2: 121-33.

Detection of minimal residual disease in acute and chronic leukemias. Radich J, Curr Opin Hematol 1996 Jul;3(4):310-4, abstract,

Detection of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia after termination of therapy.Wu NH, Lu SG, Zhu P, Peng YY. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1996 May-Jun;13(3):257-63. abstract.

The clinical significance of residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia as detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification by antigen-receptor gene sequences. Roberts WM, Estrov Z, Kitchingman GR, Zipf TF. Leuk Lymphoma 1996; 20: 181-97.

1995

Polymerase chain reaction-based detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia predicts relapse after allogeneic BMT. abstract Radich J, Ladne P, Gooley T. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 1995 Nov;1(1):24-31.

Detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia: methodologic advances and clinical significance. Campana D, Pui C-H. Blood 1995; 85: 1416-34. PubMed abstract not available.

Accurate quantitation of residual B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia by limiting dilution and a PCR-based detection system: a description of the method and the principles involved. Ouspenskaia MV, Johnston DA, Roberts. Leukemia 1995 Feb;9(2):321-8. PubMed abstract. I have a copy of this article.

Minimal residual disease. abstract Radich J. Curr Opin Hematol 1995 Jul;2(4):300-4.

Detection of residual leukemic cells in patients with acute promyelocytic

leukemia by the fluorescence in situ hybridization method: potential for predicting relapse. Zhao, L, Chang K-S, Hayes, K, Deisseroth, AB, and Liang, JC. Blood 85; 495-9, 1995.

Monitoring residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: therapeutic implications. Roberts WM, Zipf TF, Kitchingman GR, Tubergen DG, Estrov Z. Cytokines Mol Ther 1995; 1: 65-9.

Prolonged persistence of PCR-detectibale minimal residual disease after diagnosis of first relapse predicts poor outcome in childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Steenbergen EJ, Verhagen OJ, Van Leeuwen EF, et al. Leukemia 1995; 9: 1726-34.

Heterogeneity in junctional regions of immunoglobulin kappa deleting element rearrangements in B-cell leukemias: a new molecular target for detection of minimal resiual disease. Beishuizen A, De Bruijn MAC, Pongers-Willemse MJ, et al. Leukemia 1995; 9: 316-20.

Detection of residual leukemic cells in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia by the fluorescence in situ hybridiztion method: potential for predicting relapse. Zhao, L, Chang K-S, Hayes, K, Deisseroth, AB, and Liang, JC. Blood 85; 495-9, 1995.

Interaction of acute leukemia cells with the bone marrow microenvironment: implications for control of minimal residual disease. Bradstock KF, Gottlieb DJ. Leuk Lymphoma 1995; 18: 1-16.

1994

Persistence of self-renewing leukemia cell progenitors during remission in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Estrov Z, Ouspenskaia MV, Felix EA, McClain KL, Lee MS, Harris D, Pinkel DP, Zipf TF. Leukemia 1994 Jan;8(1):46-52. PubMed abstract. I have a copy of this article.

Clinical significance of minimal residual disease in leukemia detected by polymerase chain reaction: is molecular remission a milestone for achieving a cure? Ito Y, Miyamura K. Leuk Lymphoma 1994; 16: 57-64.

Outcome prediction in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by molecular quantification of residual disease at the end of induction. Brisco MJ, Condon J, Hughes E, et al. Lancet 1994; 343: 196-200.

Prospective monitoring and quantitation of residual blasts in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by polymerase chain reaction study of gamma and delta T-cell receptor genes. Cave H, Guidal C, Rohrlich P, et al. Blood 1994; 83: 1892-902.

Analysis of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes in 40 childhood acute lmphoblastic leukemias at diagnosis and subsequent relapse; implications for the detection of minimal residual disease by PCR analysis. Beishuizen A, Verhoeven M-AJ, Van Wering ER, et al. Blood 1994; 83: 2238-47.

1993

Detection of residual proliferating leukemia cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization in CML patients in complete remission after interferon therapy. Zhao, L, Kantarjian, HM, Van, OJ, Cork, A, Truillo, JM, and Liang, JC. Leukemia 7: 168-71, 1993.

Interphase in situ hybridization reveals minimal residual disease in early remission and return of the diagnostic clone in karyotypically normal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Heerema, NA, Argyropoulos, G, Weetman, R, Tricot, G, and Secker-Walker, LM. Leukemia 7: 537-43m 1993.

Molecular residual disease status at the end of chemotherapy fails to predict subsequent relapse in children with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ito Y, Wasserman R, Galili N, et al. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11: 546-53.

Detection of minimal residual leukemia by the polymerase chain reaction; potential implications for therapy. Bartram CR. Clin Chim Acta 1993; 217: 75-83.

The significance of detection of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Potter MN, Steward CG, Oakhill A. Br J Haematol 1993; 83: 412-8.

Long-term follow-up of residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients in complete remission using clonogenic IgH probes and the polymerase chain reaction. Nizet Y, Van Daele S, Lewalle P, et al. Blood 1993; 82: 1618-25.

Detection and accurate sizing of PCR product by automated scanning: improved detection of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in ALL. Shiach CR, Evans PA, Short MA, Bailey CC, Lewis IJ, Kinsey SE. Br J Haematol 1993; 85: 431-3.

tal-1 deletions in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia as PCR target for detection of minimal residual disease. Breit TM, Beishuizen A, Ludwig W-D, et al. Leukemia 1993; 7: 2004-11.

Detection of residual proliferating leukemia cells by fluorescence in situ hybridiztion in CML patients in complete remission after interferon therapy. Zhao, L, Kantarjian, HM, Van, OJ, Cork, A, Truillo, JM, and Liang, JC. Leukemia 7: 168-71, 1993.

1992

Detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia by immunological marker analysis and polymerase chain reaction. Van Dongen JJM, Breit TM, Adriaansen HJ, Beishizen A, Hooijkaas H. Leukemia 1992; 6S1: 47-59.

Residual disease at the end of induction therapy as a predictor of relapse during therapy in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Wasserman R, Galili N, Ito Y, et al. J Clin Oncol 1992; 10: 1879-88.

Minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: analysis of patients in continuous complete remission or with consecutive relapse. Biondi A, Yokota S, Hansen-Hgge TE, et al. Leukemia 1992; 6: 282-88.

1991

The use of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of minimal residual malignant disease. Negrin, RS and Blume, KG. Blood 78; 255-8, 1991.

Use of polymerase chain reactions to monitor minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Yokota S, Hansen-Hagge TE, Ludwig WD, et al. Blood 1991; 77: 331-9.

Direct correlation of cytogenetic findings with cell morphology using in situ hybridization: analysis of suspicious cells in bone marrow specimens of two patients completing therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Anastasi, J, Vardima, JW, Rudinsky, R, Patel M, Nachman J, Rubin CM, and Le Beau MM. Blood 77: 2456-62, 1991.

Maintenance chemotherapy and cure of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Gale RP, Butturini A. Lancet 1991;338: 1315-8.

Application of the polymerase chain reaction for detection of minimal residual disease of hematologic malignancies. abstract Roth MS, Terry VH. Henry Ford Hosp Med J 1991;39(2):112-6.

Follow-up of residual disease in B lineage acute leukemias using a simplified PCR strategy: evolution of MRD rather than its detection is correlated with clinical outcome. Nizet Y, Martiat P. Vaerman JL, et al. Br J Haematol 1991; 79; 205-10.

Gene rearrangement in B- and T-lymphoproliferative disease detected b y the polymerase chain reaction. Trainor KJ, Brisco MJ, Wan JH, Neoh S, Grist S, Morley AA. Blood 1991; 78: 192-6.

Polymerase chain reaction: the molecular microscope of residual disease. Sklar, J. J Clin Oncol 9; 1521-24, 1991.

Limited combinatorial repertoire of gama delta T-Cell receptors expressed by T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Breit T, Wolvrs-Tettero LI, Hahlen K, van Wering FR, van Dongen JJ. Leukemia 1991; 5: 116-24.

1990

Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region family usage is independent of tumor cell phenotype in human B lineage leukemias. Deane M, Norton JD. Eur J Immunol 1990; 20: 2209-17.

Use of oligonucleotide probes directed against T cell antigen receptor gamma delta variable-(diversity)-joining junctional sequences as a general method for detecting minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Macintyre EA, d’Auriol L, Duparc N, Leverger G, Galibert F, Sigaux F. J Clin Invest 1990; 86: 2125-35.

Minimal residual disease in childhood B-lineage lymphoblastic leukemia: persistence of leukemic cells during the first 18 months of treatment. Yamada M, Wasserman R, Lange B, Reichard BA, Womer RB, Rovera G. NEJM 1990; 323: 448-55.

1989

Minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia detected by immune selection and gene rearrangement analysis. abstract Bregni M, Siena S, Neri A, Bassan R, Barbui T, Delia D, Bonadonna G, Dalla Favera R, Gianni AM. J Clin Oncol 1989 Mar;7(3):338-43.

Detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia by in vitro amplification of rearranged T-cell receptor delta chain sequences. abstract Hansen-Hagge TE, Yokota S, Bartram CR. Blood 1989 Oct;74(5):1762-7. (note: this is the first reference I found in MedLine on PCR/MRD)

1988

T-cell antigen receptor genes and T-cell recognition. Davis MM, Bjorkman PJ. Nature 1988 Aug 4;334(6181):395-402. PubMed abstract. I have a hard copy of this article.

1987

Gene rearrangements as markers of clonal variation and minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. abstract Wright JJ, Poplack DG, Bakhshi A, Reaman G, Cole D, Jensen JP, Korsmeyer SJ. J Clin Oncol 1987 May;5(5):735-41.

Detection of residual acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in cultures of bone marrow obtained during remission. Estrov A, Grunberger T, Dube ID, Wang Y-P, Freedman MH. NEJM 1986; 315: 538-42

Detection of minimal residual acute lymphoblastic leukemia by immunological marker analysis: possibiiities and limitations. Van Dongen JJM, Hooijkaas H, Adriaansen HJ, Hahlen K, Van Zanen GE. In: Hagenbeek A, Lowenberg B, eds. Minimal residual disease in acute leiukemia. 1986.

From St. Jude's

Minimal residual disease after intensive induction therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia predicts outcome. abstract Gruhn B, Hongeng S, Yi H, Hancock ML, Rubnitz JE, Neale GA, Kitchingman GR. St Jude's Clinical Trials Report.

St Jude's

"To improve cure rates for childhood leukemia and lymphoma while minimizing the adverse effects of therapy, this program seeks to improve treatment strategies by elucidating themechanisms of malignant transformation and proliferation, the regulation of chemosensitivity and drug resistance, and the pharmacodynamics of antileukemic agents. This year, program investigators showed that outcomes in B-lineage ALL are significantly improved when chemotherapy dosage is tailored to individual patient pharmacokinetics. In our recently completed clinical trial, stringent risk assessment and early intensification of intrathecalchemotherapy virtually eliminated the risk of CNS relapse in patients with ALL, securing a high overall rate of event-free survival.

Other program initiatives focus on genetic lesions with prognostic impact, molecular diagnostic techniques, detection and significance of minimal residual disease, and the development of novel therapies. The submicroscopic presence of leukemic cells in the bone marrow at any point during treatment has been shown to be a powerful predictor of relapse in ALL. The next St. Jude Total Therapy protocol will use this tool for the first time in prospective risk assignment. The protocol will also be the first to use a genetic abnormality, TEL gene rearrangement, to direct risk-adapted therapy. The overall goal is to achieve a 90% or greater rate of 5-year event-free survival in children with ALL, without radiation or severe late sequelae of treatment. Other noteworthy studies have identified a means of supporting leukemic B lymphoblasts in vitro. This method is being used to identify potential new chemotherapy agents. To date, taxotere, cyclosporin A, and clotrimazole have proved to be highly effective at concentrations achievable in vivo."

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